To get an idea about diet control for diabetes, we need to know first  – what is diabetes?

What is diabetes:

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency o


f insulin in the body. Blood glucose levels are higher than normal and the body does not produce full or relative amounts of insulin due to hormonal problems Glucose is excreted in the urine. Overall this condition is called diabetes.

The full name of this disease is diabetes mellitus. The word diabetes means excessive urination. Mel means honey and Mellitus means mixing honey. In other words, diabetes mellitus means sweet urine. Diabetes is known by various names. Such as diabetes mellitus, diabetes(presence of honey or sugar in the urine), lots of urine(frequent urination),

honeymoon, etc.



It is a complex disease related to hormones (insulin).  The body doesn’t produce enough insulin to cause it or alternatively, insulin may not be used properly. If one or two functions are not present in the pancreas, the amount of glucose in the blood increases. If it’s not controlled in any way, there are very complications, the body tissues and apparatus begin to degenerate. The root cause of the disease is insulin deficiency. Diabetes impairs nutrition in the body. Malnutrition is caused by the body’s tissues not properly or adequately digesting food sugars or starches. Then blood sugar starts to accumulate. The stage at which sugar accumulates is when the kidneys can no longer absorb the excess sugar. As a result, metal salts and water-soluble sugars are excreted in the urine. Sometimes there is no sugar in the urine but the blood sugar level is very high. It is also seen that sugar is found in the urine but there is no blood sugar pressure.


We can say that the imbalance between insulin secretion and insulin resistance is diabetes. Diabetes is a lifelong disease.




Causes of increased diabetes :

  1. Eats more food than necessary
  2. If you do not exercise or physical exertion
  3. If you take less than the amount of insulin
  4. Forgetting to take diabetes tablets or not playing or playing irregularly
  5. If there is any infectious or inflammatory disease
  6. If mental distress occurs
  7. If the treatment of diabetes is stopped during any other treatment
  8. Many take birth control pills
  9. Trauma


Symptoms of diabetes:

  1. Frequent urination
  2. Excessive thirst, dry mouth, and throat
  3. Extreme weakness and constant hunger
  4. Sudden loss of body weight
  5. Blurred vision
  6. Weakness and fatigue
  7. Itching
  8. Frequent infections
  9. Delay in healing wounds on the body
  10. Irritable mood
  11. Presence of sugars in urine


Diabetes Patients Problems:

Over time, the problems created by excessive-high blood glucose –

  • Heart disease
  • Stroke
  • Kidney disease
  • Eye problems
  • Ear massage
  • The problem with the tooth
  • Nerve damage
  • Foot problems etc.



Long working life is possible if
1. Eat a balanced diet
2. Do adequate exercise
3. Keeps body weight and BMI right, does not allow weight gain to decrease
4. Regular blood sugar levels are controlled by determining
5. Don’t smoke
6. Run the treatment as directed by the doctor



Healthy people:
The amount of sugar in the plasma of a healthy person is 3.5-5.5 mmol per liter when fasting in the morning and
If it is less than 7.8 mmol per liter two hours after eating, it is not considered diabetes.

In the morning when fasting, the amount of sugar in the plasma is 5.8-6.9 mmol per liter or
Two hours after consuming 75 grams of glucose, if the amount of sugar in the blood plasma is 7.8-11 mmol per liter, it is considered prediabetes.

If the fasting blood sugar level in the morning is 6.0 mmol per liter or more or
Two hours after consuming 75 grams of glucose, if the amount of sugar in the plasma is 11.1 mmol or more per liter, it is considered diabetes.


Diabetes can be prescribed in a person’s blood sugar at 120 milligrams per deciliter (mg / dL) or after 5 hours of fasting, at or above 120 mg/dl.

(Source: Diabetic Care, Volume 26, Supplement 1, p-S41, January 2005 American Diabetes Association)

 Type of diabetes:

 Type 2 diabetes; Namely: diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus

Diabetes Mellitus: Diabetes usually refers to diabetes mellitus. The incidence of diabetes mellitus is very high in the body.

 Diabetes incipidus: Diabetes incipidus disease is due to a lack of production of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) or lack of action. That is, diabetes insipidus is a disease caused by the kidney’s failure to respond or in response to the anti-diuretic hormone (vasopressin). Diabetes mellitus has no relationship with diabetes mellitus, except for two symptoms of excessive urination and excessive thirst.

Types of diabetes mellitus:

The classification of diabetes mellitus is still changing. Classification of diabetes mellitus is still variable.

Juvenile diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have been categorized on the basis of underlying physiological changes, excluding these words. Understanding the causes of diabetes, its classifications can also increase.

Current classification of diabetes mellitus:
  1. Diabetes mellitus type-1
  2. Diabetes mellitus type-2
  3. Gestational diabetes
  4. Other types of diabetes

Relationship between diabetes, insulin, and glucose:

After the body eats, sugars convert the national food into glucose. Glucose enters the body and generates energy. Insulin helps glucose get into the body (meaning insulin acts as the key here). Insulin unlocks when glucose needs to enter the cell. That is, glucose goes inside the cell and completes its necessary work. Due to diabetes, insulin is not made in the right amount or even though it is made in sufficient quantity, it is not able to work properly, which prevents the key (insulin) of the cell from opening at the right time. That means glucose cannot get inside the cell at the right time. As a result, glucose could not be used in the way it should be used in the body. Glucose builds up in the blood. And the accumulation of glucose in the blood increases blood sugar. This is called hyperglycemia. If the blood glucose is higher than a certain level, glucose is seen in the urine. Which is called glycosuria. Accumulation of more glucose in the blood or urine means various harms to the body.

Modern treatment of diabetes:

The self-control of a diabetic patient is the main treatment for this disease. “There is an internationally recognized approach to controlling diabetes –
1. Gaining accurate knowledge about diabetes
2. Discipline
3. Food control
4. Physical exercise
5. Medicine


Identification of organs that could be damaged by diabetes :


Number of subjects identifying the organs damaged by diabetes (N=101)


91 (90.1 %)


65 (64.4 %)


73 (72.3 %)


64 (33.7 %)


58 (57.4 %)


8 (7.9 %)



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