Gestational Diabetes

The Gestational Diabetes



What is The Gestational Diabetes?Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes is a condition in which high blood glucose levels develop during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes usually occurs in the middle of fetal development. That is, it develops between the 24th and 26th week of pregnancy.

The number of patients with gestational diabetes is increasing day by day.


Why is gestational diabetes?

  1. Decreased physical activity at present.
  2. Eating unhealthy foods. As the tendency to eat fast food increases.
  3. Obesity
  4. Accumulation of excess fat in the body.
  5. Effects of certain hormones during pregnancy, e.g.
  • During pregnancy, the placenta secretes some hormones called human placental lactogen, human chorionic gonadotropin, estrogen, and progesterone.
  •  Pregnant women also have some normal extra hormones in their bodies, such as HCG, HLP.
  •  Growth hormone and thyroid hormone, glucagon, catecholamine, and steroid hormone secretion are slightly higher than at other times. As a result, these hormones prevent insulin from working, which in turn reduces the effectiveness of insulin on the cells. Excessive amounts of insulin are secreted for physiological function. As a result, the insulin reserves of the pancreas are reduced. The amount of insulin required for the metabolism of sugary foods is not available in the body. Sugar cannot be used in the body. So the amount of sugar in the blood increases. This is how diabetes occurs during pregnancy.

During the last three months of pregnancy, the body’s glucose tolerance decreases. So the risk of diabetes is higher at this time. People who do not have diabetes also need to be tested for diabetes at this time (7th-8th month of pregnancy).


What are the effects of gestational diabetes?

Diabetic pregnancies in the first trimester of pregnancy can cause some problems, such as-

  • Premature abortion / recurrent miscarriage.
  • Excessive vomiting during pregnancy.
  • Swelling of hands and feet. About 25% may have pre-eclampsia.
  • The amount of water in the toilet increases. In this case, This is about 50%.
  • Any type of infection can increase.
  • Urinary tract infections increase in severity.
  • The amount of sugar in the blood increases and more sugar is secreted in the blood.
  • The body consumes more fat and protein. The result is weight loss.
  • Excess albumin may be excreted in the urine. As a result, the body may lose water.
  • May cause vaginal infections. It can also be infected by fungi.

During the second trimester of pregnancy, other problems can occur, such as-

  • Glucose becomes abnormal and intolerant due to hormonal changes during pregnancy.
  • Diabetes during pregnancy causes various complications in the production of insulin.
  • Patients with diabetes may have high blood pressure during pregnancy, which may improve after delivery.
  • Convulsions may occur towards the end of the second trimester.Besides,
  • Although the need for insulin decreases in the early stages of diabetic pregnancy, its need increases in the second half of pregnancy. This is because at this time the effectiveness of insulin decreases and the levels of human placental lactogen, estrogen, free cartilage, the opposite of insulin, increase in the blood.
  • Excessive amounts during pregnancy can accelerate hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, eye disease (retinopathy), and kidney disease (nephropathy).
  • The mortality rate of pregnant diabetic women is slightly higher than that of healthy pregnant women.

The mother and baby also have complications in this condition. Failure to provide prompt treatment may result in miscarriage.
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Who can get diabetes during pregnancy?

Diabetes can occur if any of the following features are present in a pregnant woman-

  • If anyone in the family has diabetes
  • If the age of pregnancy is more than 24
  • If the pregnant woman has a history of miscarriage
  • If you have ever given birth to a dead child before
  • If there is a problem of infertility
  • If you have diabetes in previous pregnancies
  • If the weight of the child who was born earlier is more than 4 kg
  • If life is lazy in nature
  • If the bodyweight is excessive
  • Excess fat in the abdomen
  • Obese women
  • Excess water in the uterus
  • If the fetus is larger than the gestational age
  • If you gain extra body weight during pregnancy


Pregnant women should be tested in the first month (same in the second and third months) to see gestational diabetes mellitus. Getting good treatment right from the first day of pregnancy is good for both mother and baby. If not well-treated during pregnancy, the baby may even get impaired. The disease is more frequent during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes usually does not occur after childbirth. Postpartum women and children are more likely to have type 2 diabetes.


The study found that 1 in 4 pregnant women in the United States was diagnosed with gestational diabetes.


Symptoms of gestational diabetes:

  1. The three main signs are –
  2. Polyurea (frequent urination)
  3. Poly dysplasia (frequent thirst)
  4. Poly Fagia (Increased Appetite)



Risk of delivery:

  1. Infection
  2. Prolonged labor
  3. Cesarean
  4. Uterine atony
  5. Post-natal bleeding
  6. Poly hydramnios
  7. Pre-Eklamia
  8. Improve retinopathy


Fetal risk:
  1. Spontaneous abortion
  2. Death of selfishness
  3. Congenital defects
  4. Birth injury
  5. Shoulder dystocia


Newborn and Child Error:
  1. Hypo glycemia
  2. Respiratory distress



  1. Healthy agreed foods
  2. Physical exertion
  3. Use of drugs or insulin

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